This project studies temporal and spatial gene flow across Europe in order to determine the measures needed for the co-existence of GM and non-GM production systems. Crops selected for the study are maize, oilseed rape, beet and wheat in both seed and crop production systems The partnership will exploit information from recent and current national research programmes as well as generating new research in the project. The results will include: 1. Methods for detecting GM plants/products, methods (including models) for monitoring and measuring seed and pollen mediated gene flow and predicting levels of impacts on whole farm and regional scales. 2. Measures needed to segregate GM from other cropping systems, at the farm and regional scale, including changes in agronomic practices, new investments in equipment and machinery, zoning of crop production, the practicality and cost of these measures, including testing, authentication and stewardship of crops. 3. The socio-economic impacts of introducing GM crops into certain regions including increased costs on both the non-GM and GM sectors, the relationships between farmers adopting different technologies, constraints on farmers, farm saved seed implications, liability for purity of crops, conflicts and disputes between farmers. The results will inform all sectors of European agriculture and help with decision making at local, regional, national and European level on the management of farming systems in relation to GM and non-GM cropping.