Small farmers of the organic cotton sector face an acute shortage of non-GM cotton seed (free of genetic engineering) due to the widespread dissemination and adoption of genetically modified Bt-cotton hybrids. Local seed traders no longer offer any non-GM cotton seed. While older cultivars are still available by a few seed companies on pre-payment basis, they have not been tested for their suitability for organic farming conditions. To combat these challenges, the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) actively trying to address this gap in the organic cotton value chain in India and build on previous experiences of non-GM organic cotton cultivar evaluation (CCE) and participatory cotton breeding (Green Cotton). In an innovative transdisciplinary approach, smallholders, breeders, researchers, advisors, representatives of spinning and textile industry will be actively involved from the very beginning. Overall aim of the project is to secure the seed supply chain for organic cotton farmers, develop a portfolio of new cotton cultivars with improved performance, strengthen collaboration among the actors and thus improve the integrity of the organic cotton value chain.